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帮忙翻译成英语 谢谢如果说美国侵权法上的惩罚性赔偿制度改革是个“解构”的过程,那么中国侵权法上的惩罚性

admin 2019-03-31 英语
题目:帮忙翻译成英语 谢谢
如果说美国侵权法上的惩罚性赔偿制度改革是个“解构”的过程,那么中国

侵权法上的惩罚性赔偿制度则是一个“建构”问题。中国侵权法上是否需要引进惩罚性赔偿制度?如果回答是肯定的,该如何进行制度设计?中国侵权法又能从美国侵权法改革运动中获得哪些启示呢?

中国现行法上的惩罚性赔偿制度主要存在于合同法领域,其典型立法例有三:一是鼎鼎大名的《消费者权益保护法》的第49条,规定“经营者提供商品或服务有欺诈行为的,应当按照消费者的要求增加赔偿其受到的损失,增加赔偿的金
答案: 如果说美国侵权法上的惩罚性赔偿制度改革是个“解构”的过程,那么中国侵权法上的惩罚性赔偿制度则是一个“建构”问题。中国侵权法上是否需要引进惩罚性赔偿制度?如果回答是肯定的,该如何进行制度设计?中国侵权法又能从美国侵权法改革运动中获得哪些启示呢? If the United States tort law on the punitive compensation system reform is a "Deconstruction " process, then the Chinese Tort Law on the system of punitive damages is a " construction" problem. Tort law of China on whether to introduce the punitive compensation system? If the answer is yes, how to design the system? Tort law of China but also from the American tort reform movement derive what enlightenment? 中国现行法上的惩罚性赔偿制度主要存在于合同法领域,其典型立法例有三:一是鼎鼎大名的《消费者权益保护法》的第49条,规定“经营者提供商品或服务有欺诈行为的,应当按照消费者的要求增加赔偿其受到的损失,增加赔偿的金额为消费者购买商品的价款或接受服务的费用的一倍”。二是《合同法》第89条的“定金罚则”,规定“收受定金的一方不履行约定的债务的,应当双倍返还定金”。三是最高人民法院颁布的《关于审理商品房买卖合同纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释》的第8条、第9条和第14条第2款,分别就商品房出卖人“一屋多买”、提供虚假信息、建筑面积误差等问题,规定了“不超过已付购房款一倍的赔偿”或“双倍返还”的赔偿责任。在侵权法领域,除了产品责任以外[54],并无惩罚性赔偿制度的适用。 China's current law on the punitive compensation system exists mainly in the field of contract law and its typical legislation has three: one is a great reputation in the "consumer protection law" provisions of the forty-ninth, "operator providing goods or services fraud, consumers should be in accordance with the requirements for additional compensation for the losses incurred, the increased amount of the compensations for consumers to purchase the commodity price or accept service costs double ." Two is the "contract law" article eighty-ninth" earnest money "," accepting the deposit of one party fails to perform the agreed debt, it should be double the return of deposit ." Three was enacted by the Supreme People's Court on the trial of" commercial housing sales contracts dispute case applicable legal interpretation" of the eighth, ninth and fourteenth paragraph 2, respectively on the real estate seller "a house to buy ", providing false information, construction area of error problem, provides " no more than paid the purchase of a times the compensation " or "double return" the liability for compensation. In the field of tort law, in addition to product liability, there is no punitive damages system. 虽然全国人大法工委主持起草的《侵权责任法》草案中并没有关于惩罚性赔偿制度的规定,但是目前学术界主要的四个草案均不同程度的在侵权法中引入了惩罚性赔偿制度:中国社会科学院法学研究所梁慧星教授主持的草案(以下简称“梁慧星”草案)和厦门大学麻昌华教授编写的草案(以下简称“麻昌华”草案),规定了对故意侵权行为适用惩罚性赔偿;[55]中国人民大学王利明教授主持的草案(以下简称“王利明”草案)和杨立新教授主持的草案(以下简称“杨立新”草案),则规定仅在产品侵权责任或证券侵权责任场合适用惩罚性赔偿责任。 Although the NPC Law Committee presided over the drafting of the" tort liability law" draft and not on the punitive damages system regulation, but the academic circles at present mainly four draft are in different levels of tort law is introduced in the system of punitive damages : Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Professor Liang Huixing presided over the draft ( hereinafter referred to as the "Liang Huixing " the draft ) and the Xiamen University Ma professor Chang Hua prepared draft ( hereinafter referred to as " Ma Chang Hua" draft), provides for intentional torts punitive damages ; Renmin University of China professor Wang Liming presided over the draft ( hereinafter referred to as the "Wang Liming " of the draft ) and Professor Yang Lixin presided over the draft ( hereinafter referred to as the "Yang Lixin " of the draft ), set in only product liability or tort liability of securities occasions punitive damages responsibility. 与美国侵权法改革中的遭遇相比,惩罚性赔偿制度在中国侵权法学界受到的更多的欢迎和追捧。从本文前述可知,尽管惩罚性赔偿制度在美国受到各州制定法的种种限制,但由于其具备强力的惩罚、震慑和预防功能,在美国侵权法上仍具有十分重要的地位。因此,中国侵权法引入惩罚性赔偿制度,不失为一种明智的选择。但是在立法理念上,不应大开“方便之门”、降低惩罚性赔偿的进入门槛,以防“王海现象”的死灰复燃。所以笔者认为,在制度设计上,仍要吸取美国侵权法改革的经验教训,一方面限制惩罚性赔偿制度的适用,制定相对严格的成立要件;另一方面,可参照原告所获得的填补性损害赔偿金,对惩罚性赔偿金额设定最高上限。这样一来,在国内五个侵权责任法草案中,“梁慧星”草案将适用条件严格限于“故意侵害他人生命、身体、健康或具有感情意义财产”之情形,将赔偿金数额上控制在“不超过(填补性损害)赔偿金3倍”之范围内,尺度拿捏得当,显得尤为严谨合理。 Comparing to the American tort reform in the encounter, the punitive damages system in Chinese tort law is more popular and sought after. From this paper the knowable, although the system of punitive damages in the United States by state law restrictions, but because of the strong punishment and deterrence and prevention function in American tort law still has a very important position. Therefore, China's tort law to introduce the punitive damages system, can be regarded as a wise choice. But the legislation conception, should not be big " convenient ways " to reduce the punitive damages to enter a doorsill, to prevent the " Wang Hai phenomenon" a stirring among the dry bones. So the author thinks, in the system design, still should draw lessons from the experience of the reform of American tort law, a limit punitive damages system developed relatively strict requirements ; on the other hand, may refer to the plaintiff the fill of compensation for punitive damages to set a maximum limit. As a result, in five a draft law on tort liability, "Liang Huixing " the draft will be the applicable condition is strictly limited to "deliberate infringement of life, body, health or emotional meaning property " of the situation, the amount of compensation control in "no more than ( fill damage ) damages of 3 times within the scope of scale to handle properly, is very rigorous and reasonable.

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